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Echoes of Decision-Making: Daniel Kahneman's Fascinating Trek Through 'Noise'



„Interviewers of job candidates make widely different assessments of the same people. Performance ratings of the same employees are also highly variable and depend more on the person doing the assessment than on the performance being assessed.” This is just one example of the many situations where human judgment is acting under a lot of noise which makes it prone to errors.


Today we want to highlight a book that should be read from time to time to remind ourselves about the flaws in our judgment and what can we do to mitigate them: "Noise" by Daniel Kahneman, along with Olivier Sibony and Cass R. Sunstein


The main theme


The book is a captivating exploration of a crucial but often overlooked aspect of decision-making: the impact of noise. As a follow-up to Kahneman's groundbreaking book "Thinking, Fast and Slow," this thought-provoking work delves deep into the concept of noise, shedding light on its pervasive influence in our lives and decision-making processes.


Drawing on a vast array of research and real-life examples, Kahneman and his co-authors elucidate the concept of noise. Noise refers to the variability in human judgment that occurs when different individuals assess the same situation or information, leading to inconsistent decisions. The authors meticulously illustrate how noise affects professions and industries, spanning from medicine and law to finance and hiring practices.


Key highlights


  • Both errors of judgment, bias, and noise are not the same thing. The authors draw a distinction between bias and noise using a shooting-range analogy. They explain that when all the shots consistently miss the target in the same direction, it reflects bias. On the other hand, noise is depicted as a scatter of shots, spread all over the place. Even though some shots might hit the target, the problem lies in the lack of consistency in judgments or decisions.


  • Noise is not easy to be seen by people because it is all over the place in our minds. However, to effectively identify noise, the authors recommend conducting a "noise audit", which they provide instructions for in the book. They offer a set of noise-reduction strategies, such as replacing comparative judgments with absolute judgments and considering the use of algorithms to ensure noise-free decision-making.


  • Although group judgments are anticipated to decrease noise, their effectiveness is influenced by group dynamics. When individuals in a group are interconnected and reliant on each other, their judgment is assumed to be interdependent, leading to potential influences from others. Instances like choosing cloth from a trendy fashion designer to voting for a political candidate that gains significant public attention through rallies and social media trends might indicate noisy decision-making. The book presents different forms of social influence: information cascades (where people tend to reject the possibility that others are influenced) and group polarization (when discussions lead to more extreme judgments compared to individuals' original inclinations)


Food for thought


The authors present the strategy for error reduction as decision hygiene and highlight six principles that are addressed in detail in the book:


  1. The goal of judgment is accuracy, not individual expression. Even though individuality and personal values are needed in the process of thinking, some situations of judgments may require a lack of individuality in order to achieve accuracy.

  2. Think statistically, and take the outside view of the case. Taking into consideration other similar cases may be a better strategy than judging each case as a unique individual one.

  3. Structure judgments into several independent tasks. People can reduce a considerable amount of noise if they break down the problem into a series of smaller tasks.

  4. Resist premature intuitions. Intuition doesn't have to be drifted away because it plays an important role, but we should pay attention to not give it too much power in our decisions.

  5. Obtain independent judgments from multiple judges, then consider aggregating those judgments. Social influence may cause a lot of noise in judgment, but this shouldn't be eliminated. Rather, a solution is to collect participants' judgments before the group discussion.

  6. Favor relative judgments and relative scales. We think better when we make a relative judgment, for example, comparing situations than when using absolute judgments.


We recommend „Noise” as an essential read for anyone interested in understanding the intricacies of decision-making. Kahneman and his co-authors skillfully dissect the concept of noise and its far-reaching implications. By uncovering the pervasive influence of noise in various sectors of life, the book challenges readers to reconsider their approach to judgment and decision-making.


The book sparks necessary conversations and raises awareness about an often-neglected aspect of human behavior. "Noise" encourages readers to recognize the need for greater consistency and reliability in decision-making processes, making it a thought-provoking and valuable addition to behavioral economics and psychology.

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